Environmentally Sustainable Shrimp Aquaculture Systems
Future development of the aquaculture industry is limited by resources, such as water, land, fishmeal, and by other factors, such as environmental pollution. The problems caused by aquaculture wastes to the receiving water have drawn great attention worldwide in recent years. Intensive shrimp farming has been developed steadily over the last decade in response to increasing world market demand. The production system evolved from extensive toward intensive with increasing inputs of high quality feed and water supply. Thus, waste loads from culture ponds as uneaten feed and metabolic wastes was increased. In traditional intensive shrimp culture, the deteriorated pond water is frequently exchanged with new external water supply to maintain desirable water quality for shrimp growth. The nutrient laden effluent discharged from shrimp farms can cause eutrophication of coastal waters and its impact has been a major environmental concern. Many technology and method has been developed to protect the water resources and environment from being polluted and wasted. In these systems shrimp is cultured next to other organisms, which are converting otherwise discharged nutrients into valuable products. Long-term growth of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires both ecologically sound practices and sustainable resource management.
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