Environmental Impact of Hydroelectric power plants (HPP) and Fishways
Hydroelectric power plants (HPP), which are not cause environment pollution relatively and renewable, inexpensive, has increased importance. However, there are positive and negative impacts on the ecological balance of these systems. One of the main environmental impact of hydropower development is related to fish passage both upstream and downstream.Hydroelectric power plants (HPP) adversely impact both fish biodiversity and local fishing communities. Ecosystem change destroys feeding as well as breeding grounds, with a resultant loss of fish species. Where the movement of migratory fish up and down river is affected by hydropower development, fish hatcheries near the dam sites or fish ladders for fish movement should be considered as mitigation options. Local user groups and other stakeholders should be involved in decision-making, to keep good relations concerning peoples‘ livelihoods and the sustainability of aquatic resources. The fish maintain the existence with feeding and reproduction migration of fish, a sufficient amount of water flows in the stream bed and with proper planning of fish ways. Depending on aquatic habitat and fish movement corridor values and other site characteristics, use of culvert fishways may preclude the need to adopt over-conservative and unnecessarily expensive designs using bridges. The suitability of culvert fishway facilities in meeting fish passage and other multipurpose design requirements can be demonstrated for numerous waterway types and structure configurations, and particularly for retrofit facilities. Recognising the need for ongoing design development and evaluation of fish passage facilities for road crossings and other waterway structures and for innovative solutions to address aquatic fauna connectivity barriers. The remaining water in the line of river, life line support will allow to the presence of fish in streams continue. Transverse structures to do with the river flow as well as standing water and thus fish would have the opportunity. The development and increase the number of aquatic species, fish would be affected positively by increase the feeding. Keywords: Hydroelectric power plants, fish way, ecosystem.
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